Algae For Entrepreneurs Table Of Contents

Acknowledgements

INTRODUCTION

Purpose of This Book

Forward by Dr. Mark Edwards of the “Green Algae Strategy” Series

Commercial Uses of Algae Overview
What Is Algae?
Algae’s Competitive Advantages:
10 Algae Market Predictions for the Future
Biofuels Market Overview

Advantages of Using Algae as Biofuels:
Microalgae
Microalgae Strains
Macroalgae
Preferred Geographic Regions for Algae Production
Seasonal Considerations
Carbon Dioxide

Making Biofuels Using Algae

Algae Biofuels overview:
Algae Production Systems Currently in Use
Photobioreactors
Why Use a PBR?
PBR Advantages and Disadvantages
How to Use Bioreactors Successfully
Open pond systems
Advantages and Disadvantages of Open Ponds
How to Use Open Ponds Successfully

Overview of Algae Harvesting Technologies

Flocculation and Sedimentation
Flocculation and Dissolved Air Flotation
Filtration
Centrifugation
Other Harvesting Techniques
Drying
Approaches for Macro algae
Harvesting
Preprocessing
Systems Engineering
Preliminary Look at Energy Balance

Overview of Oil Extraction Technologies

Current Practices for Lipid Extraction
Mechanical Disruption (i.e., Cell Rupture)
Organic Co-solvent Mixtures
Application of Organic Two-Solvent Systems for Lipid Extraction from Microalgae:
Direct Transesterification of Lipids into Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES)
Selective Extraction
Subcritical Water Extraction
Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Heterotrophic Production
Challenges
Presence of Water Associated with the Biomass
Separation of Desired Extracts from Solvent Stream
Energy Consumption and Water Recycle

Part Three…Producing Biofuels

Producing Biodiesel
Biogas
What Is Biogas?
Market Outlook for Biogas
Biogas is a Form of Renewable Energy
Production of Biogas
Benefits of Using Biogas
Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion
Biogas Production by Pyrolysis / Gasification
Liquefaction
Supercritical Processing
Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae
Conversion of Algal Extracts
Chemical Transesterification
Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion
Catalytic Cracking
Conversion to Renewable Diesel, Gasoline, and Jet Fuel
Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction

Bio Hydrogen Production from Algae

Biochemical Processes
Gasification
Steam Reformation of Methane and Hydrogen
Using Algae for Ethanol Production
Process of Ethanol Production by Fermentation.
Ethanol Production from De-oiled Algae
Biobutanol: The Biofuel No One is Talking About
Bio-Oil Production
Challenges to Algae to Biofuel Commercialization.
Feed stock Challenges.
Conversion Challenges
Infrastructure Challenges
Algae production Costs and Uncertainties

Bio-fuel Grants and Tax Incentives

Incentives
Laws and Regulations
Renewable Fuels Assessment
Programs
Companies in the USA Involved in Algae Fuel Production

Making Bio-plastics

Bio Plastics from Algae
Market Overview
Types of Algal Bio-plastics
Applications of Bio-plastics
Disposable Plastic Products

Use of Algae in Waste Water Treatment

Role of Algae in Waste Stabilization Pond Systems – WSPs
Role of Algae in High Rate Algal Ponds –HRAP
Advantages of Waste water Treatment Using Algae
Applications of Waste water Grown Algae
Integration with Water Treatment Facilities
Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications
Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants
Treatment of Organic Wastewaters for Algae Production
Treatment of Inorganic Wastewaters for Algae Production

Concept of Bio-fertilizers and Algae

Types and Applications of Algae Fertilizers

Algae in Food & Health Industry

Spirulina and Chlorella
Algae and Health Foods
Benefits of Using Algae Health Foods
Spirulina Weight Loss Supplements
Chlorella & Spirulina for Weight Loss & Dieting
Chlorella & Spirulina for Vitality & Intestinal Health
Chlorella & Spirulina for Enhancing Brain Function
Chlorella and cholesterol
Chlorella Lowers the Risks of Cancer
Improves Fatigue Associated with Chemotherapy
Chlorella and Hypertension
Chlorella and Anti-Ageing
Chlorella Boosts Energy and Vitality
Stimulates Wound Healing
Relieves Arthritis
Improves Eyesight
Chlorella Protects the Liver
Chlorella and Blood Sugar
Chlorella and Fibromyalgia

Algae and the Food Industry

Nori.
Wakame.
Kombu.
Algae Components and Their Health Benefits
ALGIN
FUCOIDAN
ALGAL OILS

Ingredients for processed foods

AGAR
Carrageenan
Alginate

Pharmaceutical Uses of Algae

Antibiotics and Anticancer agents
Diet components
Human Therapeutic Proteins
Human interferon β1 used in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.
Human Erythropoietin (EPO) used to treat anemia in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Human Proinsulin used in the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) used in the treatment of pulmonary emphysema.
Production of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1).
Production of domain 10 and domain 14 of human fibronectin.

Nutraceuticals

Algae as a Source of Nutraceuticals

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFA)
CAROTENOIDS
Omega-3 Oils
Potential health benefits

Cosmetic Uses of Algae

The use of algae based cosmetics helps fight ageing skin and cellulite.

Algae as Animal and Fish Feeds

Algae as Fish Feeds
Aqua Culture and Algae Prospects

Miscellaneous Uses of Algae

Paper

Designing Viable Algal Bioenergy Co-production Concepts

Technically Feasible Algal Bioenergy Co-production Concepts
Basic Economic Considerations of Algae Production
Product-specific co-production options and economics
Co-production with health foods and pharmaceuticals
Algae-based non-food bulk products
Co-production from seaweed products
Integrated and “biorefinery” concepts
The Powerfarm! concept

Algae Concepts in Developing Countries

Technological feasibility of algae-based concepts in developing countries
Commercial algae cultivation in developing countries
Technological opportunities and threats for developing countries
Innovation and concept adaptation for developing countries
Financial opportunities and threats for developing countries

Marketing Challenges of Algae

Algae Business Strategies for the Future

Algae-based Rooftop Agricultural Systems: .
Algae Opportunities in Sustainable Communities:
The Positive Side of Rising Oil Prices:
Medicines, Vaccines, and Pharmaceuticals: .
Disaster Relief:
Premier Foods:
Gourmet Algae Foods:
Algae snacks and “junk” foods:
Fast Food Restaurants:
Institutional Foods:
The “Other” White Meat:
Institutional Settings:.
Small Farm Opportunities:
Opportunities for Children and Students:

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