Algae Biofuels Book table of contents

Algae Biofuels Book table of contents

Legal…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Why Use Algae to Produce Biofuels?…………………………………………………………………………… 15
Future trends in algae biofuels production in the current market………………………………… 16
Why Make Biodiesel at Home?……………………………………………………………………………………. 19
What is Algae Biodiesel? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
Biodiesel FAQ: 12 Most Frequently Asked Questions ……………………………………………………. 23
Biodiesel Advantages and Disadvantages …………………………………………………………………. 27
The Algae Biofuels Process ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
Quick Start Guide to Cultivation …………………………………………………………………………………. 32
An Overview of the Entire Process ………………………………………………………………………………. 33
Phase One: Examination of local algae: …………………………………………………………………….. 33
Phase Two: Gather Materials ………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
Phase Three: Start Culture …………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
Phase Four: Add Nutrients …………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
Phase Five: Maximize Growth……………………………………………………………………………………… 37
Phase Six: harvest………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
Phase Seven: Oil Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
Locating Native Algal Strains………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
What to do if you find a local oil bearing strain of algae…………………………………………….. 44
Building a Low-Cost Algal “Seeding” Incubator ………………………………………………………….. 45
Detailed Parts list…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
Fabrication: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
This Week’s Action Plan ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
Chapter Two: Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
Choosing an Algal Strain for Oil…………………………………………………………………………………… 54
Best Algal Strains for Oil……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
Prymnesium parvum……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
Euglena gracilis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
Scenedesmus dimorphus ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
Chlorella pyrenoldosa and vulgaris …………………………………………………………………………….. 59
Isochrysis galbana – ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
Best climates to grow algae ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
Oil content by species ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
Where to Buy Algal Strains World-Wide……………………………………………………………………….. 70
The Chlamydomonas Center ……………………………………………………………………………………… 71
World-Wide Culture Collections: …………………………………………………………………………………. 71
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
Chapter Three: Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
Growth Dynamics of Algae ………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
“Quick and Dirty” Fertilizers and Nutrients……………………………………………………………………. 78
Basic Variations to Create Algal Development Effects: ………………………………………………. 80
Light ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
pH……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
Aeration/mixing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
Temperature……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
Salinity or Salt Content………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
This Month’s Action Plan……………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
Chapter Four: Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
Why Use a PBR? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
Design Notes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
When to Use a Bottle PBR ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
PBR Advantages and Disadvantages …………………………………………………………………………. 90
Detailed Parts List………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
Test Bioreactor Fabrication …………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
Building the Frame………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
Building the Bio-Cells …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103
Air stone/Ball Valve Fabrication ………………………………………………………………………………… 111
Fabricating the Bio Light……………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
Adding Power, Temperature Control, Pump, and Air Systems …………………………………… 122
The Test Bioreactor in Action……………………………………………………………………………………… 126
Harvesting…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
Test PBR Parts List……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
Chapter Five: Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
Design Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
When to Use a Bio Pond ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
Detailed Parts List………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
Fabrication ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
Options and Variations ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
Parts List…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
Bio Pond in Action …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
Chapter Six: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
Building a Backyard “Raceway” Open Pond……………………………………………………………. 165
Applying the fine coat………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
Sweep the Concrete ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
Installing the Shaft Mounting Block ……………………………………………………………………………. 185
Sealing the Concrete………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
Assemble Paddlewheel and Install Motor …………………………………………………………………. 191
Calculating the amount of algae per square foot of open pond. ……………………………. 192
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
This Week’s Action Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
Chapter Seven: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
Design Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
When to Use a Vertical PBR……………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
Detailed Parts List………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
Fabricating the Base…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
Fabricating the Bio Lights ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
Fabricating the Bio Cells……………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
Air stone/Ball Valve Fabrication ………………………………………………………………………………… 222
The Air System …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 240
This Week’s Action Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 241
Chapter Eight: Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………. 243
Low Cost Harvesting Techniques……………………………………………………………………………….. 244
Algae harvesting with a Wine Press …………………………………………………………………………… 249
Larger Scale Algae Harvesting………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
Harvesting Algae with Electrolytic Foam Flotation…………………………………………………….. 251
More Advanced Algae Harvesting Methods…………………………………………………………….. 256
Drying Algae …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
Algae Recipes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
This Week’s Action Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 262
Overview of Oil Extraction Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 265
Expellers or Continuous Screw Presses……………………………………………………………………….. 266
How to Use an Expeller ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
Macro Algae Oil Extraction……………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
Building a Home Made Algae Press ………………………………………………………………………….. 272
Using a Hydraulic Car Jack……………………………………………………………………………………….. 278
Micro Algae Oil Extraction ………………………………………………………………………………………… 279
Creating an Oil Press from a Hydraulic Jack in Your Car……………………………………………. 279
Making a Hydraulic Press…………………………………………………………………………………………… 280
Inexpensive, Store-Bought Micro Algae Solutions………………………………………………………. 283
Making Algae Biofuels at Home
Copyright 2012 David Sieg Page 7
“Off-The-Wall” Oil Extraction……………………………………………………………………………………… 284
Algae Biodiesel Reading List ……………………………………………………………………………………… 285
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 286
This Week’s Action Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 288
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 288
Biodiesel Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 290
A Visual Overview of the Algae Biodiesel Recipe Process …………………………………………. 294
Making Your First Batch of Biodiesel…………………………………………………………………………… 296
Making Algae Biodiesel in Your Kitchen…………………………………………………………………….. 297
Washing Biodiesel ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 302
How Much Biodiesel Will I Need to Produce? ……………………………………………………………. 304
Scaling Up Production (An Illustrated Overview)……………………………………………………….. 305
Buy a Biodiesel Processor or Build your Own? ……………………………………………………………. 309
The Third Option: A Biodiesel Kit…………………………………………………………………………………. 311
Buying a Processor ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 312
Buying a Kit ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 316
This Week’s Action Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 318
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 318
Chapter Eleven: Why Wash Biodiesel?………………………………………………………………………. 320
How to Build a Wash Tank …………………………………………………………………………………………. 321
Bubble Washing Biodiesel …………………………………………………………………………………………. 323
Mist Washing Biodiesel ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
Mix Washing Biodiesel ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
“Dry Washing” with Magnesol …………………………………………………………………………………… 329
Titration of Oils …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 331
Typical First Batch Errors …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333
Trouble Shooting: Emulsion Busting ……………………………………………………………………………. 335
Quality Testing Biodiesel ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 340
Simple Wash Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 341
Visual Inspection of Biodiesel …………………………………………………………………………………….. 342
Testing for Cold Weather Properties ………………………………………………………………………….. 344
Gel Point Testing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 345
Initial Feedstock Testing…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 346
Testing in a nutshell……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 348
ASTM Testing Explained……………………………………………………………………………………………… 349
Action Checklist………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 353
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 355
Chapter Twelve: Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………. 357
What is Ethanol? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 358
How Ethanol is Used ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 359
Why Use Algae to Produce Ethanol? ………………………………………………………………………… 360
Basic algae ethanol production ……………………………………………………………………………….. 362
Algae Based Ethanol Feed Stocks …………………………………………………………………………….. 363
Sargassum…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 364
Description………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 364
Sargassum muticum………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 365
Glacilaria ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 366
Prymnesium parvum………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 368
Biology………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 368
Euglena gracilis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 369
Spirogyra…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 370
Scenedesmus dimorphus ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 371
Chlorella pyrenoldosa and vulgaris …………………………………………………………………………… 372
Growing Algae for Ethanol………………………………………………………………………………………… 373
Strain Selection………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 374
Cultivation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 375
Open Ponds ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 375
Closed Ponds ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 376
Enclosed Photo bioreactors ………………………………………………………………………………………. 376
Building or Buying a Home Ethanol Still………………………………………………………………………. 379
Still Plans: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 380
Still Kits……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 381
Professionally Built Stills ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 383
Action Checklist…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 385
Coming Up Next … ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 387
Other Books in This Series……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 388
About the Author …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 389

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